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二胎的全面开放为什么几乎没有愿意生的呢

作者:admin日期:

分类:123/都市资讯/

"Family planning, especially for the younger generation of friends, a generation that is planned to give birth, may be scornful. What kind of family planning is not to lie to ordinary people, it is only a good one, now the labor is not enough, let us The second one, the ghosts believe in you. It is obvious that the family planning was wrong, but now we let ordinary people come to pay the bill. Why?" On June 13, the sixth session of the "Members' Hall" produced by the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference Broadcasted on the official website of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference. The present speaker is the deputy director of the Population and Resources and Environment Committee of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, and Wang Pei'an, the party secretary and executive vice president of the China Family Planning Association.

At the beginning of the speech, Wang Pei'an made the above opening remarks. He said that many people do not understand the history of family planning. Prejudice stems from misunderstanding. Misunderstanding stems from lack of understanding. Different birth policies must be implemented in different periods. "Is it only one?" Is it good? The former deputy director of the National Health Planning Commission explained that Wang Pei'an was born in March 1958, Zunyi, Guizhou. From the local to the central government, he has worked in the health and family planning departments for nearly 20 years. From 2000 to 2006, he served as the director of the Guizhou Provincial Family Planning Commission. From 2007 to 2013, he served as the deputy director of the former National Population and Family Planning Commission. By 2018, he served as the deputy director of the former National Health Planning Commission.

Why did family planning be implemented in the same year? After the founding of New China in 1949, the society became stable, the economy was restored, medical and health conditions continued to improve, mortality rates fell rapidly, and the Chinese population continued to grow at an unprecedented rate. The total population of the country has rapidly increased from 540 million in 1949 to 830 million in 1970. Population pressure is gradually emerging in many aspects of economic and social life.

From 1952 to 1976, China's average annual increase in fixed assets was only 20 billion yuan. It can only solve about 2 million new jobs every year. The urban unemployment problem is getting more and more serious. The per capita food possession is always around two or three hundred kilograms. At that time, the vast majority of ordinary people were very difficult to eat, drink, and live. "Older friends, such as after 50, 60, have experience, eat food tickets, wear clothes to pay tickets, even buy a box of matches to match tickets. People's living standards are extremely low, per capita income growth is extremely slow Wang Pei'an said that the situation at that time was mainly due to the rigid economic system and policy mistakes, but the population growth was too fast and the high-quality population was too small, which was also a big constraint.

In 1971, the Party Central Committee and the State Council reviewed the situation and decided to implement family planning in an all-round way. Family planning flourished in urban and rural areas across the country. The slogan at the beginning was late, rare, and less. Later it became a lot, two just right, and three more. Wang Pei'an said that after the widespread implementation of family planning in China, by the end of the 1970s and early 1980s, the population growth momentum was still very rapid. In 1978, the total population of the country reached 960 million, and the 1 billion mark was close at hand. In that year, China’s GDP ranked tenth in the world, but per capita GDP was only $156, ranking fourth in the world. The population problem has become an important factor restricting economic and social development. Under this circumstance, the central government proposed to implement the one-child policy in urban areas and some rural areas. By 2000, the total population of the country will be controlled within 1.2 billion.

In 1982, family planning was designated as the basic national policy of China. In the newly revised constitution of the same year, family planning was mentioned in four places. Wang Pei'an explained that China's birth policy has never been a one-size-fits-all policy. Under the background of the one-child policy, urban and rural areas, Han and ethnic minorities, ethnic minorities and other ethnic minorities are treated differently. In fact, at that time, the one-child policy covered about 35% of the country's population. The “one child and a half” policy covered about 50% of the country's population. The two-child policy covered about 10% of the country's population, and the rest were multi-child policies. (Editor's Note: The “one child and a half” policy means that the first child is a girl and the second child can be born.)

What are the benefits of strict family planning for many years? Wang Pei'an said that through decades of hard work, China has successfully completed the historical mission of controlling excessive population growth, and realized the type of population reproduction in advance, from high birth, low death, high growth to low birth, low death, low growth. A huge shift. Family planning has effectively promoted rapid economic growth and continuous improvement of people's livelihood, laying a solid foundation for building a well-off society in an all-round way.

With the rapid decline in fertility rates, a demographic dividend period of low dependency burden, ample working-age population, and high savings has been created. The reform and opening up policy has fully exploited the demographic dividend and is an important reason for the long-term rapid growth of China's economy. According to estimates, the contribution of the demographic dividend to per capita GDP from 1982 to 2000 was 26.8%. Due to the small number of children, the development of women and children has greatly improved, the overall quality of the people has improved rapidly, and the production and development of the people have greatly improved. The pressure on the resource environment has been effectively alleviated.

On the other hand, if family planning is not implemented, the total population of the country will be more than 400 million people, and per capita arable land, food, forests, and fresh water resources will be 20% lower than the current level. According to the data provided by the United Nations, per capita carbon emissions are 3.8 tons per year, less than 400 million people are born, and 1.5 billion tons are reduced every year, which greatly reduces the ecological pressure. At the same time, China's family planning has delayed the world's 7 billion people's day by five years. It has established a good image of China's responsible and populous country, and has also made significant contributions to slowing the growth of the global population and eradicating poverty.

Why do you want to "full two children" now? After strictly implementing the one-child policy, since 1992, China’s family planning performance has become obvious, and the total fertility rate has dropped below 2.1, which is to achieve low fertility levels. The total fertility rate is too low, which will affect the coordinated development of population and economy and society.

"In the long run, it will definitely not work." Wang Pei'an said. After entering the new century, the momentum of excessive population growth has been effectively controlled. The contradiction between population growth and economic shortage has faded, and new problems have surfaced. The incidence of birth defects is high, the sex ratio of births is high, the population is aging, and population migration is becoming more active. The historical responsibility of promoting balanced population development is in front of us.

Since the beginning of the new century, China’s demographic situation has undergone major changes, and the internal dynamics and external conditions of population development have undergone significant changes. Wang Pei'an concluded that there are five new characteristics of the Chinese population in the new era: First, the momentum of population growth has been significantly weakened, and the number of women of childbearing age has gradually decreased. In particular, the number of women in the prosperous period of 20 to 29 years old has declined rapidly, with fewer eugenics. Become the mainstream of the concept of childbearing in the whole society. The fertility willingness is significantly reduced.

Second, the overall quality of the population is difficult to adapt to the needs of economic transformation and development. In the face of the new economic normal, China's low-cost labor advantage no longer exists. It is urgent to improve the quality of the population, especially the quality and skills of the workforce. Third, the structural problems of the population have become increasingly prominent. The working-age population has begun to decrease, the degree of aging has continued to deepen, and the sex ratio of the birth population has been high for a long time.

Fourth, large-scale migration and migration has brought about all-round impact on social structure, governance model, lifestyle, and customs, while promoting economic growth, narrowing regional disparities, and changing the pattern of population distribution. Fifth, the scale of the family has shrunk. The average household size per household is 3.1. The traditional old-age support and the mutual aid and mutual aid function are weakened.

Why are many couples of childbearing age reluctant to have a second child? The 2016 comprehensive two-child policy was introduced, but did not trigger widespread baby boomers. "There are no one to bring out, and raising children is the most important two reasons." Wang Pei'an said that the root cause is that many life goals, lifestyles, and life concepts have changed since the 1980s and 1990s. They advocate less birth and better education than traditional ones. In addition to being unwilling to give birth, they are not willing to give birth. There is also a phenomenon that is not good, there are many infertility phenomena, and the incidence of birth defects is not low.

To solve these problems, we need to fill in the shortcomings, focus on strengths, strengths and weaknesses. Specifically, it is to strengthen the allocation of public resources, focusing on meeting the needs of care services for infants under 3 years of age. Wang Pei'an appealed that the welfare services and family planning free services enjoyed by the couples of childbearing age should be implemented, and the family planning reward award and the spouse paternity award should be included in the maternity insurance. In particular, the newly revised individual tax law should be implemented, and the children should be educated and supported according to law. The deduction of expenses such as the elderly provides tax relief for families that meet the policy family.

At the same time, it is necessary to explore the establishment of a flexible working system for women during childcare, to promote women's balance between family and work, and to protect women's employment rights. How many children can solve the problem? "The essence of the population problem is economic problems and development problems. It is not a simple problem of having fewer children and having more children." Wang Pei'an said that more children can't solve the problem of economic development and can't solve the problem of population aging.

Wang Pei'an believes that the aging of the population is an inevitable trend in the development of human society and an important indicator of the progress of social civilization. Throughout the world, all countries are facing an ageing problem after entering the development stage. Ageing is not a savage beast. It is impossible to solve the problem of aging by having more children.

At the beginning of the founding of New China, the average life expectancy of Chinese people was less than 40 years old. Now the average life expectancy is over 77 years old. For the first time in history, there are so many people who can live longer, which is the result of human struggle. For the society, although raising the elderly has a net consumption side, historically, this is the return that the elderly deserve.

Currently, among all the elderly, the relatively younger age is relatively large. He suggested that this opportunity should be firmly grasped, institutional design should be strengthened, and active aging and healthy aging should be promoted. It is necessary to speed up the improvement of old-age policy measures, improve the old-age security service and health support system, and solve the problem of disabled and semi-disabled elderly. Rehabilitation care and other issues. In recent years, there have been difficulties in recruiting workers and labor shortages in some places. Some people believe that the lack of labor has affected the development of China's economy.

Wang Pei'an believes that although the working-age population has continued to decrease, the total amount is still huge and the human resource base is still strong. According to the international calibre, the 15-64-year-old working population still has 990 million in China, 950 million in 2030, and 820 million in 2050. With the advancement of science and technology and the development of artificial intelligence, the replacement of ordinary labor by robots will continue to increase. That is to say, not only is the labor force relatively abundant now, but in another three or fifty years, the labor force in China is still relatively abundant.

The excess labor force and structural shortages reflect the mismatch between the quality of the population and the adjustment of industrial structure. The working-age population of developed countries in Europe and America is about 730 million, but the total economic output is four times that of ours, and the labor productivity is six times that of ours. Wang Pei'an said that under low fertility levels, China can no longer rely on the low-cost advantages of cheap labor to participate in international competition. We must turn to the quality of the labor force to drive economic development, continuously improve the quality of workers, improve the total factor productivity, and become a powerful country with a large population.

"Some people think that more people can stimulate consumption, and more children can stimulate economic development. The actual situation is not the case." Wang Pei'an said that China's current population is nearly 1.4 billion, and the United States has only 320 million, but China's per capita consumption capacity is only the United States. one seventh.

Improving the support of consumption for economic development is not achieved by having children. China does not lack the population. What is lacking is a middle-income population with spending power. It is necessary to broaden the channels of labor income, expand middle-income groups, and cultivate new consumer demand. The two tankers continued to ferment in the attack on the Gulf of Oman. Saudi Crown Prince Muhammad bin Salman first publicly blamed Iran on the 16th and called on the international community to take a "decisive stance" on the attack.

Agence France-Presse said on the 16th that this was the first time that the tanker was attacked on the important channel of the Persian Gulf. Muhammad first commented on the tension between Saudi Arabia and Iran. "Iran is definitely responsible for the attack on the tanker." On Sunday, US Secretary of State Pompeo reiterated his views in an interview with Fox News, saying that the information obtained by the United States "has a lot of evidence" to support his judgment. But he still did not give any details. On the same day, Iranian Islamic Parliament Speaker Larijani retorted, saying that the suspicious action against the tanker is more like Washington's "additional measures to sanctions." In this regard, the media in the Middle East have expressed concern that the various competitions around the tanker may “smoke the fire” and make the situation “develop in the direction of war”.

The Middle East Eye website commented that since the four tankers in the UAE’s waters were attacked last month, all parties concerned have taken measures to cool the situation, especially a series of diplomatic initiatives and actions led by Qatar, Japan and Oman aimed at easing Tensions, and the events of last Thursday were apparently made by "a destructive person who is not interested in mediation and cooling." The article said that in addition to the United States and Iran in the matter, there are other parties who are behind the scenes and secretly making the situation move toward the war. If it is not handled properly, it may wipe out the fire and even cause the situation in the Gulf to get out of control.

"Is the US video really available to Iran? Can these evidences provide sufficient grounds for military retaliation? Can we believe in the US?" "German Voice" asked questions in an article on the 16th. The article believes that the Iranian government took the initiative to launch a war against the United States, which is logically unreasonable - Iran's military power is far less than that of the United States, and if it is a conflict, Iran is more likely to lose. Iran may show its muscles to the United States by attacking tankers. This is only speculation. Similarly, it is speculation that the United States, Saudi Arabia or Israel are behind the attack.

The US presidential election Democratic candidate Sanders stressed on Twitter on the 15th that if the oil tanker attack was used as a reason for the war against Iran, this would be a disaster for the United States. He said that it is illegal for the United States to attack Iran unilaterally. Reuters said on the 16th that Tehran and Washington did not intend to go to war, but this did not alleviate the fear that the two enemies would be smashed and accidentally slipped into the war.

The US "New York Times" published an editorial on the 15th that there is an unresolved issue in the recent oil tanker attack. The hardliners of both countries are not interested in diplomatic channels. Iran knows the destructiveness of the conflict with the United States, but Iranian officials have always hinted that if the domestic oil cannot be exported, other Gulf countries do not want to export oil. The Trump administration lacks consistency in its Iranian strategy and continues to issue conflicting signals that increase uncertainty. The article believes that Trump should not follow the advice of the hawks advisers such as the President of National Security Affairs Bolton, and it is wise to talk to Iran. Bloomberg also said on the 16th that even if Iran may be a behind-the-scenes attack on the tanker, the United States should avoid military confrontation, but instead strive for many allies to increase pressure on Iran through other means.
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