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the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea, South Asia and Southeast

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After the Second World War, Germany and Japan, which were defeated countries, were occupied by victors, and even Britain and France, which were victorious countries, had already been exhausted by the war. With the general decline of Britain, France, Germany and Japan, the post-war world pattern was rapidly transformed into the United States and the Soviet Union. The United Nations was established under the leadership of the United States. Therefore, the United States was well deserved in the early stages of the establishment of the United Nations. The United States succeeded in building US dollar hegemony through the Bretton Woods system; during this period, the United States possessed the world's most advanced nuclear weapons technology and electronic communication technology; Canada and Western European capitalist countries were included in the NATO system by the United States.

The United States, which has been in the limelight for a time, has only one Soviet country in the world to stand up against the United States. Although the Soviet Union suffered a major loss in World War II, with the Soviet military’s strategic counterattack and the worldwide communist movement, Eastern Europe and East Asia are in full swing. He became a member of the socialist camp; and the Soviet Union itself quickly developed its own nuclear weapons and space equipment after the war. Despite this, the pattern of US strength and weakness in the overall overall national strength has not been reversed, and it is precisely because of this that in the Cuban missile incident, Khrushchev will make major concessions to Kennedy.

However, since Brezhnev took office in 1964, the Soviet Union’s national economy fixed production fund has increased by 2.42 times, higher than the growth rate of the United States in the same period, and the social GDP has increased by 1.46 times. In 1965, the national income of the Soviet Union was only 62% of that of the United States. By 1975, it increased to 67% of the United States, an increase of 1.44 times. In the same period, the industrial output ratio increased from 65% to 80%, an increase of 1.77 times. The average agricultural output value of the “10th Five-Year Plan” period increased by 50% compared with the “Seventh Five-Year Plan” period. At the same time, the military strength of the Soviet Union also expanded rapidly: the Soviet Navy was expanded by the offshore defense fleet into an armed force with ocean-going capabilities; the Soviet Union already possessed 1,300 intercontinental ballistic missiles for strategic nuclear weapons, surpassing the US 1054 intercontinental ballistic missiles for the first time. quantity.

During this period, the Soviet Union acquired a number of airports and ports in many strategically important areas along the Atlantic and Indian Ocean coasts, the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea, South Asia and Southeast Asia, and established overseas military bases in Vietnam, Cuba, and Afghanistan. Especially in the Vietnam battlefield, the Soviet Union helped the North Vietnamese regime to teach the United States, and the post-war Vietnam showed a clear pro-Soviet tendency. It was in this situation that the Soviet Union decided to take the initiative in the world, while the United States in the same period turned to the defensive.

During this period, the Soviet leadership with Brezhnev as the core developed a grand global expansion plan: supported by economic strategy, with military strategy as the core, supplemented by mitigation strategies; with Europe as the strategic focus, in the Middle East, Africa has flanked its squadrons and competed for strategic locations, strategic resources and ocean passages. At this time, the strategic position of Afghanistan in the southern part of the Soviet Union emerged: the deep east of Afghanistan in the hinterland of the East borders China's Xinjiang, the west is adjacent to the Middle East as a hotspot in the world, south to Pakistan and India, and north to the Soviet Union. The Central Asian Republic.

Historically, it was the place where the forces of the Central Plains Han and Tang Dynasties, which expanded from the east to the west, and the nomadic peoples such as the Xiongnu and Turks, which expanded from the north to the south, and the Arab empire that expanded from west to east. By the time the modern tsarist Russia conquered the Central Asian countries in northern Afghanistan, the British Indian colonies were established in the British Empire in the south of Afghanistan. The geographical location of Afghanistan's extensive reach means that if anyone conquers Afghanistan, who can use this as a springboard to radiate its strategic influence to East Asia, South Asia, West Asia and Central Asia.

Based on this concept, the major countries will compete to expand their sphere of influence in Afghanistan. Over time, the major countries have formed a strong competitive relationship in Afghanistan: Afghanistan's sensitive geographical location and complex mountainous terrain mean that if Afghanistan falls into other countries. The hands of big powers will greatly increase the strategic depth of each other, and will also weaken their strategic strength in the hinterland of Asia. Afghanistan will become a springboard for other countries to attack themselves. At that time, they may lose more than just an Afghan. It is possible to form a chain reaction throughout Central Asia, South Asia, the Middle East and other places, leading to the collapse of its interest chain throughout Asia.

On the other hand, if you can control Afghanistan, it is equivalent to laying a nail at the geocentric center of Asia and Europe: you can radiate your international influence to the entire Eurasian continent and deter the neighboring powers, and retreat can force these big powers to neutralize. Those who are nervous about their relationship have to converge because of the rodent. A Soviet-controlled Afghan will pose tremendous strategic pressure on Pakistan and the West Asian allies of the United States. On the other hand, the Soviet Union is also worried that Afghanistan is under the control of Western countries. Afghanistan is geographically just below the soft belly of the Soviet Union. Once it becomes a sphere of influence in the West, it will have a very negative impact on the Soviet Union.

One of the shortcomings of Russia's geo-structure is the lack of estuary - Russia's northern Arctic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea. However, Russia's participation in international shipping trade is not good: the Arctic Ocean route is perennial. Frozen, the value of utilization is relatively low. The history of Russia from the Russian to the Soviet Union to the present is in a sense a history of constantly searching for Haikou. The current Russian President Vladimir Putin once said: "Russia has and has only two allies - one is Army, one is the navy."

As early as January 1558, Ivan IV sent troops to the Baltic Sea on the grounds of the Lithuanian Knights and Lithuania. This caused the group of Poland, Lithuania, Sweden, Denmark and other countries along the Baltic Sea to attack. Eventually Russia returned without success. In the spring of 1695, Peter the Great had a 30,000-strong expedition to Turkey and failed due to the lack of a fleet. After the creation of a new navy in Western Europe in 1696, Peter the Great re-entered Turkey and successfully conquered the Aviv region.

In 1700, Peter the Great forced Turkey to recognize Russia's occupation of Aviv in the form of a peace treaty. However, the sea power of the Black Sea Strait is still in the hands of the Turks. Although the war against Turkey failed to achieve the goal of Peter the Great to open the Black Sea estuary, in the Great Northern War of 1700-1721, Peter the Great pulled over Poland, Denmark and other countries to successfully defeat Sweden, occupying the Gulf of Finland, Riga Bay, and the card. In the Baltic coast areas of Reclia, Estonia, and Latvia, Peter the Great established the new capital of Russia, St. Petersburg, in the newly occupied Baltic Sea estuary, which later became Russia's gateway to Europe and even to the world.

After defeating Sweden to win the Baltic Sea estuary, Peter the Great: "Only a country is a single arm of a country. Only with a navy is a complete arm. What Russia needs now is the sea." Because the Russian territory is in a cold latitude, despite its long coastline, it lacks a natural harbor that is not frozen all the year round. The southward search for warm seas has always been the established national policy of the Russian state. Although occupying Afghanistan does not allow the Soviet Union to directly obtain access to the southern Indian Ocean, Afghanistan's neighbor, Pakistan, is precisely the Indian Ocean coast, while Pakistan has another identity, the US allies.

Historically, the land of Afghanistan has extended to the present-day Pakistan and has the Indian Ocean estuary. Until 1893, the British and Indian government’s foreign minister, Duran, forced the signing of a new border treaty with the Afghan kingdom by invading Afghanistan, thus putting half of Afghanistan. Territory and population are included in British India. After the partition of India and Pakistan, this part of the land was attributed to Pakistan, which was divided from the original British India. However, the Afghan side has been controversial on the border between the two countries. If the Soviet Union succeeded in fostering a pro-Soviet government in Afghanistan and attacking Pakistan in the name of aiding Afghanistan to regain lost ground, it may be that the Soviet Union obtained the Indian Ocean estuary, and it will also seriously undermine the US ally system in South Asia. This shows that Afghanistan is very suitable. Play the role of the springboard for the expansion of the Soviet Union to South Asia.

In fact, the Soviet Union did not start in Afghanistan in 1979: As early as 1953, the cousin of the last king of the Baklaza dynasty in Afghanistan, Prince Zaud, was known as the "Red Prince" because of his close association with the Soviet Union. In 1973, Prince Daoud, then Prime Minister of Afghanistan, launched a coup with the support of the KGB to expel the king, and immediately announced the establishment of the Republic and assumed the presidency. In 1977, three pro-Soviet organizations led by Nur Talaki, Hafizula Amin and Babulak Carmel merged into the Afghan People’s Party.

In April of the following year, the People’s Party launched a coup with the support of the KGB to overthrow Daoud who had split up with the Soviet Union. Daoud himself and his family of 30 were killed in this coup. After the People’s Party came to power, it took the full-scale Soviet-style ideology as the ruling direction. In the Afghanistan where the local tribal religious forces were intertwined, it forced the implementation of radical social transformation and religious policies. At one time, various local rebellions under the banner of religious jihad broke out in various parts of Afghanistan. The Soviet expert consultants stationed in the area were killed.

At the same time, the internal political situation in Afghanistan has also changed: in April 1978, after the establishment of the Afghan Democratic Republic, the extreme pro-Soviet Taraki became the chairman of the Revolutionary Committee and served as the prime minister. In March 1979, Amin was appointed as the prime minister. After Amin took office, he apparently maintained a close diplomatic relationship with the Soviet Union. However, he has been secretly trying to break away from Soviet control. In order to get rid of the control of the Soviet Union, Amin chose to gradually improve his diplomatic relations with Western countries and neighboring countries such as China and Pakistan, in an attempt to resist the expansion of Soviet forces in Afghanistan.

In this case, the Soviet Union tried to unite Taraki to clear Amin, but Amin succeeded in launching a coup in September 1979 to kill Taraki. After Amin’s power, he began to cancel the privilege that Talaki promised to give to the Soviet Union, and at the same time openly negotiated with the United States on the normalization of US-Arab relations. The Soviet Union is worried that Afghanistan will not only be separated from the arms of the Soviet Union, but may even become a strategic opponent of the United States to crack down on the Soviet Union's geostrategic channel, so the first plan to start a strong plan in the Soviet decision-making layer quietly began to brew. On December 27, 1979, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan opened the prelude to the 10-year war in Afghanistan.

During the peak of the Cold War in the 1970s, the Soviet Union was in an offensive phase in the US-Soviet confrontation, pursuing an outward-looking offensive expansion. The main direction of expansion was the southwestern part of the Soviet Union, Central Asia. For the Soviet Union, controlling parts of Central Asia will be able to cover the Soviet Union with the Indian Ocean, the Persian Gulf and other places. One can threaten the energy passages of Western countries, and secondly, open up new battlefields in the Indian Ocean region and conduct maritime confrontation with NATO. It is also able to contain the European region from the flank and bring more pressure to NATO.

In order to achieve the above objectives, the Soviet Union first focused on Afghanistan. Although Afghanistan is a landlocked country, after controlling Afghanistan, the Soviet Union can gain the initiative in Central Asia and lay the foundation for the next expansion. Initially the Soviet Union did not want to invade Afghanistan, and the Soviet Union hoped to control Afghanistan through "peaceful means."

Since 1973, the Soviet Union has infiltrated Afghanistan in political, economic, cultural and other fields. By supporting Afghan soldiers and planning coups, it has tried to establish a new regime that has been ordered by the Soviet Union. However, after the coup d’état, the Soviet Union lost its effective control of the coup because of internal fireworks and other reasons. Finally, Amin, who came to power, tried to get rid of the Soviet control. He even planned to make friendly contacts with the United States. Eventually the Soviet Union exhausted patience and decided to take large-scale military actions to force Afghanistan to yield. In 1979, the Soviet Union dispatched 100,000 troops to carry a large number of weapons and equipment to attack Afghanistan. Although the Soviet Union quickly removed the Amin coup, supported the new regime, defeated the regular Afghan army, and built a base in Afghanistan and stationed troops. However, the Soviet invasion was unanimously resisted by the Afghan people.

If the military combat strength is compared alone, the guerrillas of the Afghan people’s organization cannot match the Soviet army at all. However, the Afghan guerrillas seldom confronted the Soviet army. They invaded the Soviet army by choosing to attack the Soviet army's transportation routes. With the continued development of the war, the Soviet army began to fall into the quagmire of war.

Behind every tenacious guerrilla team, there will be a strong support for the country/power. For the Afghan guerrillas, there is more than one support country behind them. In 1981, the guerrillas in Afghanistan jointly established the Afghan Islamic Jihad Islamic Alliance and began to receive large-scale military assistance from the United States, China, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and other countries. These countries attach great importance to military aid and all kinds of advanced weapons are available. . In the end, the Soviet Union lost in confrontation with the Afghan guerrillas and many countries behind Afghanistan. The Soviet Union completely withdrew from Afghanistan in 1989, and the 10-year war in Afghanistan ended. At this time, the life of the Soviet Union has come to an end.

Part of the reason is to capture the Indian Ocean estuary. As early as during Peter the Great, Russia set a regional strategy for capturing the four major estuaries of the Pacific Ocean, the Arctic Ocean, the Indian Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean. In the context of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union, the Soviet Union’s revisionism and the great-power chauvinist road, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. It is not an accidental act. It is one of Russia's overall strategies since Peter the Great. Of course, there is also a reason that the pro-Soviet regime supported by the Soviet Union in Afghanistan was coup, which indirectly damaged the interests of the Soviet Union in Afghanistan; Brezhnev believed that he could clean up them with his military superiority, and finally his head was launched with enthusiasm. War in Afghanistan.

In the 1950s, Afghanistan had a territorial dispute with neighboring Pakistan in the Pashtunani region. The Soviet Union seized the opportunity to support Afghan on this issue and bring Afghanistan into its own side. And later, Nuer Mohamed Talaki, the school's brother of the Emperor Brezhnev, who had studied in the Soviet Union, established the Afghan People's Democratic Party in Afghanistan.

In 1973, with the support of the Soviet Union, the Afghan army and the People’s Democratic Party of Taraki, the former Afghan Prime Minister Mohamed Idris Daoud launched a coup to overthrow the Afghan kingdom and establish the Afghan Democratic Republic. In the following 1978, Taraki stepped down in a coup and was arrested and imprisoned. A few days later, with the support of the rebels and the Soviet Union, a coup took office. In the position of pro-Soviet policy. In 1979, Taraki and the Afghan People’s Democratic Party No. 2 Hafizola Amin disagreed. On September 16, Amin launched a coup, overthrowing Taraki’s rule, and Taraki was killed in the coup.

In order to benefit from the interests of the Soviet Union, the Soviet Union had to call Amin a "good friend of the Soviet Union" and hoped that Afghanistan could continue to cooperate with it; but Amin did not buy it, not only deliberately harming the interests of the Soviet Union, but also squinting with the West. In the end, under the leadership of a number of senior leaders of the Soviet Communist Party, such as Andre Borov, the Emperor of the Medal decided to send troops to Afghanistan. Beginning in August 1979, the Soviets began to enter Afghanistan in succession, destroying and detaining some of Afghanistan’s weapons in the name of “checking and repairing weapons” and controlling a number of strategic locations. In December 1979, the Soviets gradually assembled; on the 27th, they invaded Afghanistan. More than 5,000 Soviet airborne troops raided the capital Kabul, controlled the airport and killed Amin. Subsequently, the Soviet army advanced to the area of ​​the map, controlling the large, medium and small cities of Afghanistan. However, the terrain of Afghan is dangerous. Many places are not suitable for mechanized arms, so there is no control over rural areas.
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