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来中国旅游的外国人中发达国家不到三成

作者:admin日期:

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According to the website of the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Education recently issued the "Guiding Opinions on the Formulation and Implementation of Professional Talents Training Programs in Vocational Colleges" (hereinafter referred to as "Opinions"). The "Opinions" pointed out that schools are encouraged to actively participate in the pilot of the "credit bank" of vocational education, explore the establishment of relevant working mechanisms, register and store the learning results embodied in the academic certificates and vocational skill level certificates, count them into individual study accounts, and try to learn. Identification, accumulation and conversion of results.

According to the "Opinions", in accordance with the relevant national regulations, public basic curriculum standards and professional teaching standards, combined with the school-running level and school orientation, scientific and reasonable determination of professional training objectives, clear students' knowledge, ability and quality requirements, and ensure the training of specifications. It is necessary to pay attention to learning and learning, and to understand the unity of knowledge and practice, and to cultivate students' innovative spirit and practical ability, and to enhance students' vocational adaptability and sustainable development ability.

The "Opinions" clarify that vocational colleges must start public basic courses in strict accordance with relevant state regulations. Secondary vocational schools should include ideological politics, language, history, mathematics, foreign languages ​​(English, etc.), information technology, sports and health, and art as compulsory courses for public foundations, and physics, chemistry, Chinese traditional culture, professionalism, etc. The course is listed as a compulsory or limited elective.

Higher vocational schools should classify ideological and political theory courses, physical education, military courses, and mental health education as compulsory courses for public foundations, and combine Marxist theoretical courses, national history of party history, Chinese traditional culture, professional development and employment guidance. Innovative entrepreneurship education, information technology, language, mathematics, foreign languages, health education, aesthetic education courses, professional literacy, etc. are listed as compulsory courses or elective courses.

The "Opinions" mentioned that the professional (skills) curriculum should be adapted to the training objectives. The curriculum content should be closely related to the production labor practice and social practice, highlighting the application and practicality, and paying attention to the cultivation of students' professional ability and professional spirit. Generally, 6-8 professional core courses and a number of professional courses are determined according to the competency requirements of the corresponding professional positions (groups).

The "Opinions" require that institutions should arrange their school hours reasonably. Three-year program, high school, 40 weeks of teaching activities per academic year. The total number of three-year secondary vocational schools is not less than 3,000, the public basic course hours are generally 1/3 of the total hours of study; the three-year higher vocational total hours are not less than 2,500, and students are encouraged to study independently. The public basic courses should not be taught. Less than 1/4 of the total hours. The proportion of teaching hours for middle and high vocational elective courses should be no less than 10%. Generally, it is 1 credit for 16-18 hours. Encourage the relevant vocational skill level certificate or the relevant technical skills that have been recognized by the students in the industry to be recognized as the corresponding credits for academic education according to certain rules.

The "Opinions" emphasizes the active implementation of various internship methods such as cognitive internships, follow-up internships, and internships, and strengthens the evaluation of internship training with the goal of educating people. The internship time for students is generally 6 months, which can be arranged in a centralized or phased manner according to professional practice. Promote vocational colleges to build a variety of training bases and strengthen student internship training. Coordinate the promotion of cultural education, practice education, and educate people, and carry out various social practice activities. Strictly control the graduation exit, ensure that students complete the required credit hours and teaching links when they graduate, combine the professional examinations (assessment) with the professional practice, ensure the achievement of graduation requirements, and resolutely put an end to the "clean examination" behavior.

The "Opinions" pointed out that schools are encouraged to actively participate in the implementation of the 1+X certification system pilot program, organically integrate the relevant content and requirements of vocational skill level standards into professional curriculum teaching, and optimize professional talent training programs. Simultaneously participate in the national “credit bank” pilot program of vocational education, explore the establishment of relevant working mechanisms, register and store the learning results embodied in the academic certificate and vocational skill level certificate, count it into the individual study account, and try to identify, accumulate and convert the learning results. .

In addition, the Opinions also stated that schools are encouraged to formulate professional talent training programs that reflect the characteristics of different schools and different professional categories in light of actual conditions. For the retired military, laid-off workers, migrant workers and new-type professional farmers and other groups to work independently, under the premise of not falling the standard, the professional talent training program will be compiled separately, and flexible learning time and multiple teaching modes will be implemented. Implement the professional training of middle and high vocational education, and flexibly formulate corresponding talent training programs based on actual conditions. The Beijing News (Reporter Zhang Jingya) On June 18, the Beijing News reporter learned from the Beijing police that the Beijing Public Security Bureau, together with the Beijing Customs Anti-smuggling Bureau, successfully cooperated with law enforcement agencies such as Hong Kong, Fujian, Hebei and Guangdong. A transnational smuggling drug-related criminal gang broke out and a major transnational drug trafficking channel that entered South Korea via Beijing and eventually flowed to Hong Kong and Southeast Asia. The case involved a total of 10 drug-related suspects and 24 kilograms of drug cocaine.

Previously, the Anti-drug Corps of the Beijing Public Security Bureau received a report from the Beijing Customs Anti-smuggling Bureau: a suspected possession of drugs in a multinational cargo. Wang Fei, deputy head of the anti-drug corps, said that in the work, the police found that the cargo was a cylindrical transformer with a weight of 32 kilograms. The seal was intact and could only be destructively dismantled and did not have the conditions for re-recovery. In order to continue to follow up on the clues, the police decided not to dismantle them first. The police used specialized equipment to test the surface of the transformer and found traces of cocaine contamination. After further work, the goods were found to be transferred to Fujian Xiaoqing (a pseudonym) by a woman who claimed to be a small (a pseudonym).

In view of the above, the Beijing Police established a joint task force to carry out the work. After investigation, it was learned that Xiaomeng was responsible for directing drug transportation in Hebei, and Xiaoqing was responsible for receiving goods in Fujian. According to this, the task force went to Hebei to control Xiaomeng. On the other hand, when the task force waited for Xiaoqing to receive the goods, he controlled it and seized suspicious transformers in the trunk of the car he was driving. Drug cocaine 8 kg.

The Beijing News reporter learned that the transnational drug gang has its own professional equipment and abundant funds. As a middleman, Xiao Meng smuggled drug trafficking for drug trafficking groups in South America. Over three years, he accumulated more than one million yuan and has been seized by the police. After the Beijing police controlled Xiao Meng, they used the small and fierce identity to circumvent the criminal gang and obtained the offline information of the drug, and provided the clue to the Ministry of Public Security for further investigation.

The police found that the gang had organized a single shipment involving two transformers that had arrived in Beijing by air from South America and was ready to be forwarded to Guangdong and Southeast Asia. The task force immediately carried out investigations, and from September 25 to October 13, 2018, under the unified coordination of the Ministry of Public Security, together with the relevant provincial and municipal police and the foreign law enforcement agencies involved, the other members of the gang were controlled and collected. The drug cocaine 16 kilograms successfully destroyed the transnational smuggling drug criminal gang, and cut off a transnational drug trafficking channel that entered South Korea via Beijing and eventually flowed to Hong Kong and Southeast Asia.

The Australian Transportation Security Administration (ATSB) recently released a report stating that on February 3 this year, a small plane taking off from Aldinga was around 1:45 pm, when the plane had reached an altitude of about 2438.4 meters, and one of the fuel tanks was fueled. Insufficient, the pilot was unable to restart the engine because he forgot to change the fuel tank. The height of the aircraft also gradually declined, and the captain mistakenly thought that the fuel had been exhausted. At this time, the captain who was in a hurry decided to ask the four passengers on the plane to escape from the height of 1981.2 meters. After the passengers jumped, the captain had intended to drive the plane back to the airport of Aldinga. I did not expect it to be at 1524 meters. The aircraft engine actually restarted smoothly, and finally the plane landed safely. The Transportation Safety Administration said afterwards that "after the flight was over, the pilot found that although the right tank was empty, there was still 110 litres of fuel on the left tank."

The captain said that at that time, because he used radio calls and high workload, he was distracted and did not find the fuel tank problem. The Australian Transportation Safety Administration said that this was a serious Fei’an incident and that this involved fuel management. Accidents are a problem that has always existed. The Australian Transportation Safety Administration hopes that in this case, selecting the right fuel tank before the flight will prevent the pilot from managing the fuel during the busy flight and reducing the risk of accidents. In recent years, some cities in China have experienced the problem of over-financing in the real estate industry. An important manifestation is that the leverage ratio of the household sector has risen sharply, resulting in the unsustainable debt burden of the relevant households, showing the real estate financialization.

The house is for living, not for speculation. In the real estate market that meets the needs of housing, housing prices truly reflect the housing needs, and it is unlikely that there will be a housing bubble problem. If the house is mainly responsible for the investment function, it will become an investment product that the market is eagerly chasing, which will inevitably lead to the financialization of real estate. Although there may be economic prosperity in the short term, due to the lack of support from industry and innovation, the surface prosperity of the real estate industry will eventually be a short-lived one. After the housing price bubble bursts, the economic and financial sector is “a local feather”.

This is because, in the house that bears the function of investment products, the return on investment has clearly deviated from the residential property. That is to say, the rental rate of housing that bears the function of residence is far from supporting the high rise in house prices, which makes the high-price operation of the house actually evolve into a game of “drums and flowers”. In the process of rising housing prices, the market irrational frenzy further aggravated the accumulation of funds in the real estate industry, which in turn will significantly stimulate the rise in housing prices, and thus form a positive feedback loop of “price rises – capital accumulation”, which quickly blows up the housing bubble. , greatly increasing the risk of economic and financial operations.

Looking back at history, in the early 1990s, after the Japanese real estate bubble burst, the economy fell into a long-term quagmire, and it is still struggling on the edge of recovery. In 2007, the US housing price bubble burst and triggered the subprime mortgage crisis, which eventually turned into a rare international financial crisis in a hundred years.

In recent years, the real estate financialization situation in some cities in China has been mainly manifested as follows: First, it has clearly deviated from the positioning of “the house is used to live”. Urban residents' enthusiastic pursuit of residential investment functions has led to new deposits mainly flowing into the residential investment sector. Moreover, the irrational and leveraged willingness is strong, especially since the high housing price rise in some cities since 2016 and the sharp increase in the leverage ratio of the household sector have been moving in the same direction and supporting each other, posing a huge risk hazard. A house that has assumed the investment function. If it is not used for renting, it is a pile of idle cement, steel and bricks, which causes great waste of social resources.

Second, it has seriously distorted the structure of social production factors. The structure of production factors such as capital, labor and technology is the basis for endogenous economic growth. The financialization of real estate will inevitably distort the structure of social production factors, leading to uneven distribution of capital among industries and insufficient motivation for technological innovation. It will hurt the enthusiasm for social entrepreneurship and innovation, exacerbate the bad atmosphere of social speculation and hinder economic transformation and upgrading. In recent years, it is not difficult to find that the down-to-earth industry is not as good as real estate speculation. The talents in the high-end field are keen on financial speculation and the social dance. The reason why such social phenomena occur is actually the result of serious distortion of the structure of social production factors. .

The third is that solidification has formed a path dependence of the real estate industry. The real estate industry is certainly an important industry in the national economy, but it is not the only industry that drives economic growth. In the past, in order to alleviate the contradiction between urban housing supply and demand and improve the quality of people's living, the real estate industry has achieved rapid and even advanced development, and at the same time it has also driven local economic growth. Today is not the same as before, but some cities are “drug addiction” to the development of the real estate industry. Even if there are hundreds of kinds of local economic developments and thousands of tricks, the only choice is to rely on the “real estate industry”. In-depth analysis of the inherent logic of the real estate industry's path dependence, it is not difficult to find that this must be to promote the market to stimulate the market as a means, but is doomed to be unsustainable. Some construction sites in the city support the economic data in the short term, but they have buried huge hidden dangers in the medium term. At the end of the day, high-rise buildings supported by cement, steel and bricks will soon decline without technological innovation-driven economic growth.

Undoubtedly, real estate financialization is comparable to anesthesia economy and society, "drugs" with huge deadly side effects, and need to be highly vigilant. To prevent and resolve the financialization of real estate is to "detoxify" in the economic and financial fields. Although the process is painful and even repeated, it must be sustained. Because this is the only way to achieve healthy economic and financial operations and promote high-quality economic development. To this end, we must unswervingly adhere to the "house is used to live, not for speculation" positioning, completely abandon the dependence on the real estate industry to promote local economic growth, accelerate the improvement of the real estate industry tax system, and severely ban financial system funds Violation of regulations into the real estate sector, effectively strengthen the law enforcement of the real estate market, especially the housing rental market, strictly guard against the volatility of the real estate market, and vigorously promote the construction of a long-term mechanism for the real estate market.
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